Trauma & PTSD

Additional Information


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an  anxiety disorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing events.

Someone with PTSD often relives the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt.

They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia, and find concentrating difficult.

PTSD can develop immediately after someone experiences a disturbing event or it can occur weeks, months or even years later.

Causes of PTSD

The type of events that can cause PTSD include:

  • serious road accidents
  • violent personal assaults, such as sexual assault, mugging or robbery
  • prolonged  sexual abuse, violence or severe neglect
  • witnessing violent deaths
  • military combat
  • being  held hostage
  • terrorist attacks
  • natural disasters, such as severe floods, earthquakes or tsunamis

If you are involved in or witness a traumatic event, it is common to experience upsetting, distressing or confusing feelings afterwards. The feelings of distress may not emerge straight away – you may just feel emotionally numb at first. After a while you may develop emotional and physical reactions, such as feeling easily upset or not being able to sleep.

This is understandable, and many people find that these symptoms disappear in a relatively short period of time. But if your problems last for longer than a month, or are very extreme, you may be given a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

There’s no time limit on distress, and some people may not develop post-traumatic symptoms until many years after the event. Additionally, not everyone who has experienced a traumatic event develops PTSD.

Signs and symptoms


Generally, symptoms of PTSD can occur when a person re-experiences the traumatic event, tries to avoid thinking about the event, or is experiencing high levels of anxiety related to the event. Some of the most common symptoms include:

  • Having  recurrent nightmares
  • Acting  or feeling as though the traumatic event were happening again, sometimes  called a "flashback"
  • Being  physically responsive, such as experiencing a surge in your heart rate or  sweating, to reminders of the traumatic event
  • Having  a difficult time falling or staying asleep
  • Feeling  more irritable or having outbursts of anger
  • Feeling constantly "on guard" or like danger is lurking around every      corner
  • Making an effort to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the  traumatic event
  • A loss of interest in important, once  positive, activities
  • Experiencing  difficulties having positive feelings,such as happiness or love

Its important to note that recovering from a traumatic event takes time, and everyone heals at his or her own pace. But if months have passed and your symptoms aren’t letting up, you may benefit from seeking professional support by way of counselling.